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While climate models have rapidly advanced in s 37 ophistication over recent decades, they lack dynamic representation of human behavior and social systems despite strong feedbacks between social processes and climate. The impacts of climate change alter perceptions of risk and emissions behavior that, in turn, influence the rate and magnitude of climate change. Addressing this deficiency in climate models requires a substantial interdisciplinary effort to couple models of climate and human behavior. We suggest a multi-model approach that considers both a range of theories and implementations of human behavior and social systems is required, similar to how a multi-model approach has been used to explore the physical climate system. We describe the importance of linking social factors with climate processes and identify four priorities essential to advancing the development of coupled social-climate models.


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Beckage, B., Lacasse, K., Winter, J.M. et al. The Earth has humans, so why don’t our climate models?. Climatic Change 163, 181–188 (2020).