Document Type


Department (Manual Entry)

School of Social Work


Transnational feminist discourse has critiqued the pursuit of women’s empowerment through international development programs. Empowerment, when reduced to the provision of financial resources and services, is unlikely to lead to wider changes in gender inequality unless programs strategically combine credit with other vital services. We interviewed women participating in a multifaceted empowerment program in Mumbai, India, to explore the potential of the ‘‘Credit-Plus’’ model to facilitate pathways of individual and collective empowerment. Emergent themes of empowerment were enhanced socioemotional well-being, increased economic assets, and improved household gender equity. Interview responses demonstrate changes in individual, household, and collective agency dynamics.


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Relation Data

Krenz, K., Gilbert, D. J., & Mandayam, G. (2014). Towards collective agency: Exploring women’s empowerment through microfinancing in India. Affilia: Journal of Women and Social Work, 29(3), 310-325. doi: 10.1177/0886109913516453.



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