The ‘‘toxic time bomb’’ of the so-called ‘‘green’’ high-tech industry is no longer a secret. Today, ‘‘[h]igh-tech pollution is a fact of life wherever the industry has operated for any length of time, from Malaysia to Massachusetts’’ (Siegel and Markoff 1985, 163), and so is resistance to high-tech toxic disaster. Since at least the late 1970s, electronics workers, academics, and environmental justice and labor rights activists have ‘‘challenged the chip’’ industry (Smith, Sonnenfeld, and Pellow 2006; see also Pellow and Sun-Hee Park 2003). Their struggle exposed not only the toxic externalities of microelectronic modernization, but also the emergence of redgreen counter movements marked by both subtle and overt ecopolitical and ecosocialist aims.
Little, Peter C. "Environmental Justice Discomfort and Disconnect in IBM's Tainted Birthplace: a Micropolitical Ecology Perspective." Capitalism Nature Socialism. 23.3 (2012): 92-109. Print.