Degree Name

Master of Arts (MA)

Document Type



Faculty of Arts and Sciences



Date of Original Version

May 2023


Of the three parenting styles created by Baumrind (1966), the authoritarian style has been largely associated with fathers due to previously reinforced unhealthy masculine norms. However, there has been a change in masculine behaviors and ideology in which fathers have taken on a more nurturing role (Lin & Billingham, 2014). Specifically, the son's coping style and masculinity will vary greatly depending on the paternal figures’ behavior during childhood and further (Addis & Cohane, 2005; Cherry & Gerstein, 2021). One hundred and fifty participants were recruited to take part in this study that is examining paternal gender role conflict and parenting styles on different outcomes for the son. ANOVAs were used to examine the effects of the paternal parenting style on the son’s coping style and gender role conflict. Regressions and correlations were used to examine the effects of paternal involvement and gender role conflict of the paternal figure in addition to the son's conflict and coping styles. The results did not support the hypothesis that parenting styles make a difference, but that gender role conflict and paternal engagement did appear to have an impact on the son's gender role conflict and coping style. The implications of how the father-son relationship should be examined in future research are discussed due to the contradicting results compared to the past literature.