Sudan, Africa's largest country, straddles a vast expanse of geography, history and culture. Its great diversity is a most prominent characteristic. While Sudan has not itself played a central role in world history, the great powers from the ancient Egyptians to the British imperialists have involved it in international affairs. However, it is often forgotten that Sudan once ruled Egypt during the height of the Kushites, that it was under Byzantine Christian rule for a longer period than under Islam, and that the great Sudanese nationalist, the Mahdi, defeated a joint Anglo-Egyptian military venture in the late nineteenth century.
Haddad, Hassan S. The Arab World: a handbook
Eastern Michigan University
Lobban, Richard, et al. "The Sudan." The Arab World: a handbook, edited by Hassan S. Haddad, Association of Arab-American University Graduates, 1978, pp. 165-172.